Sunday, March 10, 2019

Practical Life Exercises in Montessori and Development of Social Skills

We stern imagine an adults conjunction organized as shaping family on the resembling lines as boorrens that is on lines with this inhering society of cohesion. Attach ment to different people is the first acquaint which drives solely(a) men to litigate for a common paperl. It would be good for men if society could be constructed exchangeable this except when we cannot command this. It must come in from nature. If nature is the reason the construction lead be superior, scarcely without this basis there can only be an artificial construction which breaks take easily. (The Child, golf club and the World,p 24, Chap III) margon Montessori termed a babe as a Spiritual embryo, which is in the embryonic stage of the proximo fully transformed adult. A society is a mathematical group of adults, duration a group of baberen can be termed as an embryonic stage of the coming(prenominal) society. A group of squirtren is nothing besides a vividise or a place where s haverren spend time together. Hence, Montessori termed neighborly give risement as possibly the most important element in her schools. Her stress on nipperren beingness everyowed the freedom to browse al integrity and to develop intentness did not mean that she underestimated the importance of hearty development.Instead what she saw was that it was simply because the tiddlerren were allowed to bend in such freedom that they then displayed their innate social cohesion. She saw that true discipline and harmony was something that came from within and was not something that could be enforced. The chelaren then be raisely and have a harmonious discipline. A discipline in which each has different sakes. It is different from the discipline of a soldier, with his forced obedience, when we all have to do the same thing at the moment.This is a social discipline and it fathers people into harmony with each early(a). (The Child, Society and the World, p 24, Chap III) Dr. Mont essori designed her surround as a clarification of the world outside. She provided social vulnerabilitys in all angles to a barbarian in her purlieu. thither is a great sense of comm one within the Montessori class means, where children of differing ages establish together in an atmosphere of cooperation rather than competitiveness. There is evaluate for the milieu and for he item-by-items within it, which comes finished experience of freedom within the community. (The requirement Montessori An admittance to the Woman, the Writings, the Method, and the Movement, Elizibeth. G. Hainstock, Plume publishers-Penguin Group) A child when visualizes a Montessori milieu, impart be in a pre-normalized state, with fear, anxiety, confused and some other not so intumesce felt condition. Pre-normalized child can be brought to normalized state by adult him determinationful work, through incorporate surroundings. What is this purposeful work and how is a structured environment defined?A child will have sure inner urge for certain kind of the work according to which, she will be prompted to focus her attention on certain elements in her environment, for a certain period of time. These periods argon termed as sensitive period. There are six of these sensitive periods aesthesia to Order The Child visual aspects the need for cabaret in several commissions like seeing things in addicted places. Learning through their quintuple senses The child has a natural oddment to explore things around him, olfactory perceptioning them with his five senses. sensibility to small objects.The aesthesia to small details holds the childs attention for an extended period, elevation the ability to focus. Sensitivity to language The assimilatory Mind of the small child makes an intellectual achievement unconsciously under the guidance of a surplus sensitivity that enables it to select certain moves from all the other phenomena in the environment. Sensitivity to co -ordination of movement In this period, the child has an involuntary inclination to perform and accept movement purely for the sake of gaining greater and more(prenominal) precise control.Sensitivity to social aspect of demeanor Children pay special attention to other children of their ingest age. The work of Sensitive period enables recognizable affections and friendships to develop. In this way, the child check overs to be part of a group. Sensitive periods provide children a natural tendency to learn. The stages of learn eff for which there should be corresponding educational environments and appropriately trained teachers to prepare the environment. The child learns free-livingly using the comp championnts of the environment and the teacher guides and observes the child who chooses his activities.The teacher is the link between the child and the environment. The learning environment cultivates individualization, freedom of choice, concentration, independence, problem solving abilities, social inter perform, interdisciplinary largeness and competency in basic skills. The Montessori classroom is a living room for children. Children choose their activities from open shelves with self-importance-importance-correcting temporals and work in distinct work areas on tables or on the mats on the floor. Over a period of time, the children develop into a normalized community working with high concentration and few interruptions.An environment includes the personifying components 1. practicable smell Exercises 2. Sensorial Education 3. Language reading 4. Arithmetic 5. Cultural Education Montessori Practical Life Exercises (PLE) is seen as the tooshie of the Montessori method. These exercises provide the opportunity for purposeful work assist young children in their development- physically, cognitively, socially and emotionally. PLE are designed to teach children life skills as these service of process children develop intelligent and be in respons ible contact with their surroundings.These compound the childrens control over their movements, exercising the muscles of the whole body with understanding and willed purposes. The materials given up(p) will be familiar, tempting and is food for the sensitivity of the child. An isolated individual cannot develop his individuality. He must put himself in relationship with his environment and within the reach of the events and the life of his times. (http//www. montessori-namta. org/NAMTA/PDF%20files/Outcomes. pdf, Childs Instinct to Work, maria Montessori)A Montessori Practical Life Exercise area is prepared in such a way that, a bit of everything is put into it. This particular proposition area is dynamic and varies from school to school and place to place. It depends on the interest and the creativity of the adult and overly reflects the cultural practices of that particular place. The objects which we use for serviceable life, have no scientific significance they are the obje cts in use, where the child lives and which he sees being used in his home they are made, unless in sizes adapted to the little man. Montessori mare, The Discovery of the child, Pg 108, 2006) Evidently, a Montessori environment is a miniature of the society outside, where a child is exposed to the identical things that he finds in the world outside. The way a child works with these material and with the other kids is nothing but a mini community created in spite of appearance the Montessori environment. Practical life exercises are designed to teach children life skills. The pragmatic life area is of great importance in the Montessori classroom, yet it is the least(prenominal) standardized since almost all the materials are teacher made or assembled. The Practical Activities allow the child to chastise doing what adults all around whitethorn be seen doing each and everyday for example, dressing one-self, reasonablying then home, and greeting people. In addition to giving t he child an opportunity for self-development, these activities provide an taste to the customs of the childs particular society. These precise contents of the Practical Activities should therefore differ from culture to culture. (Getmann David, Basic Montessori learning activities for under-five, St.Martins Press, 1987) Principles of the Montessori Practical Life Materials Each material must have a definite purpose and be meaningful to the child The difficulty or the error that the child is to discover and understand must be isolated in a single piece material. The materials progress from simple to more complex in design and usage. The materials are designed to prepare the child in checkly for future learning. The materials begin as concrete expressions of an idea and gradually become more abstract. Montessori materials are designed for auto-educative and the control of error lies in the materials themselves rather than in the teacher. The control of error guides the child in the use of the materials and permits him to recognize his let mistakes. Addition to the above principle, the following points must be considered when preparing the matter-of-fact life exercises. Materials are kept together in a small wicket or on a tray. It should be grouped and kept together according to the level of development to which they correspond.They must be taken from and returned to its passkey place. Materials are kept within their reach. Materials must be of the right size, weight, clean and intact. Materials are indistinguishable among themselves with exception of the variable quality which they possess. Materials must be attractive in colour, brightness and proportion Materials should be limited in quantity. Te teacher superintends, it is true but it is things of several(a) kinds, which call to children of various ages.Truly the brilliance, the colours, the beauty of gaily decorated objects are none other than voices, which call the attention of the chil d to themselves and urge him to do something. Those objects possess an suaveness which no mistress can ever attain to. Take me they suppose See that I am not damaged, put me in my place. And the action carried out at the instigation of things gives the child that lively satisfaction, that access of energy, which prepares him for the more difficult work of intellectual development. (Maria Montessori, The Discovery of the Child, pg 110) Practical Life Exercises are meant to resemble everyday activities and all materials will be familiar, real, breakable, and functional. The materials will withal be related to the childs time and culture. In order to allow the child to fully coat the exercise and to therefore finish the full cycle of the occupation, the material will be complete. In the environment, the hireress whitethorn want to color code the materials as well as dictate the materials based on difficulties in order to facilitate the classification and arrangements of the wor k by the children.The attractiveness will also be at fulfilment importance as Montessori believed that the child must be offered what is most attractive and pleasing to the eye so as to help the child enter into a more refined and subtle world. Activities All the activities given will have certain Direct aims and certain Indirect aims. Direct aims are those, where the child learns to do the particular activity and the purpose of the activity is served. Where as indirect aims are those, where child learns legion(predicate) more things from the activity. There are four major categories in Practical Life Exercises. They are 1.Exercises that help in the development of Motor skills 1. Rolling and unrolling The child will be presented to roll and unroll different types of mats- this helps him in being independent and also social skill of winding up and completing a the full job is indirectly presented 2. Carrying Activities like carrying the mat, chair, table and tray are presented to the child. The direct aims of these activities are, development of motor skills where as the indirect aims are, the child is made to learn social skills like carrying things without hurting others, without qualification much noise and with beauteous movements.These social skills are indirectly presented to the children through these activities. 3. Spooning Here, the child learns to transfer beans from one bowl to another, one bowl to two equal bowls, to two uneven bowls, to three equal bowls, to three unequal bowls and to another identical bowl with the indicator line. The child learns to transfer beans but the social skills like holding the spoon urbanely, transferring it without spilling much and without making much noise. This gives the child combine to be independent in the school, at home and also at the social gatherings 4.Dry Pouring Presentations given here are pouring the change beans from one jug to another jug, bowls in the same stylus as said above. Here the chi ld learns the pouring of dry beans along with the social skills of holding a jug, carrying the jug with bowls, pouring things without making much noise and with minimum spilling. 5. Wet Pouring Here once again the child will be doing the same activities as above but with the liquid and funneling also will be introduced. Child will be presented with and apron to wear and a plastic mat to work on, which gives him an idea of difference between the dry and the wet activity.Wearing an apron and the certificate of indebtedness of wiping the spilt liquid enhances his independence and an awareness of the environment this increases his confidence and also owning thre obligation. 6. Transferring, Pegging and folding Child will be exposed to things like tweezers, tongs, chop sticks, etc, and also to sorting and differentiating. Pegging with paper clips, c grouph clips and peg board are also introduced. The childs social skills of using these objects in a graceful manner are enhanced. The c hild learns to unfold and fold the napkins in five different ways.The napkins are unfolded and folded with gentleness of touch and the evenness of pressure. This gives the child an exposure to the social skills like folding and unfolding the different variety of cloths. 2. Exercises for the get by for the environment The activities like Sweeping, Opening and closing of different types of bottles, boxes, unlocking and locking locks, latches etc, treading the bead, bust and cutting papers, polishing, etc are presented. These activities help the child in dealing with the above mentioned things, so that his ability to be independent is enhanced. . Exercises for the care for self The child is thought washing his hands, face etc, also the different dressing frames are given to work with so that he can be self dependent. He can be independent enough to tie his own bow, button his own shirt, tie his own lace and zip and unfasten his bag by himself. 4. Exercises to develop social grace an d courtesy The child is thought to greet, interrupt, invite and offer a seat, a glass of water, scissors, pen, and other day to day useful items. Children are made to play serenity game, where their love towards silence is discovered.Waling on the line enhances the balance and the grace in walking. Apart form these activities any activity that the directress feels appropriate is also given. The activities and the materials gum olibanum help the child in the overall development also the way, child interacts with the other children and adult inside the environment is also favorable for his the social development. Kids in the Montessori environment are vertical grouped where children of different ages are put together. There will be no uniformity in their age-wise activities.This gives them an experience of diversification, but in a single environment. The purpose do-nothing keeping only one set of each activity in a Montessori environment is also to make the children work as a soci al group. Any child, who wants to work with the material, will have to wait if it is being used by some other child. This builds a concept of co-existence. Dr. Montessori many times illustrated that, in her environment children work as a group rather as an individual. She gives an instance for this. Once in her environment, children heard the sound of some precession and rushed to the window to watch it.Only one boy who was working with some material could not wind up so fast and go with them. His eyes were filled with tears, seeing which all the other kids rushed to him and helped him in winding up and all of them enjoyed the show together. This shows that in a Montessori school even though the kids work individually, they exist as a group or a community and work together for the good of the whole. This is so evident that the child in a Montessori environment is a microcosm of the society. And the reality of this society lies in unity and coherence, respect and love.Children learn to use the knowledge they have gained in an appropriate way in an appropriate environment. Dr. Montessori says One ought to each everything, one ought to connect everything with life, but there ought not to be suppressed, by directing them ourselves one y one, the action which children have learnt to carry out and to place in practical life. This assigning of their proper places to action is one of the most important things which the child has to do. (Maria Montessori, The Discovery of the Child, Pg 120) Conclusion The practical life exercises are the beginning activities which change motor control, eye hand coordination and concentration. The practical life exercises include environment care, pouring, polishing, washing, and serving. Children love these Practical Life Exercises and are also taught good work habits by being encouraged to complete the whole task, see that all materials needed are arranged in order, and make sure the immaculate exercise is available for use by the next child. Teaching the children to be thoughtful of the rights of other children, they are prepared for a successful citizenship and career.The practical life activities contribute invaluably to the development of the whole person with inner discipline, self direction and a high degree of concentration. http//montessoriclc. net/education/practical-life/ and so the Practical Life Exercises not only develops the childs faculty member ability but also enhances the childs social ability. The child in a Montessori environment is not isolated with the syllabus but he is prepared to face the society outside, exposed to the materials and the environment similar to what he finds out side the school.With these activities child is given the concept of catchy work, self help and owning the responsibility and above all they will know how and when to apply what they have learnt. The children own their environment and take up the responsibility of setting it and cleaning it up. They get unit ed with children of different age groups and through these activities and the concept of coherence, love and unity is established. A society seems to be more united by the absorbent mind than does by the conscious mind.The manner of its construction is observable and may be compared to the work of the cells in the branch of an organism. It seems clear that society goes through an embryonic phase which we can follow among little children in the course of their development. It is interesting to see how, little by little, these become aware of forming a community which behaves as such. They come to feel part of a group to which their activity contributes. And not only do they begin to take an interest in this, but work on it profoundly, as one may say, in their hearts.Once they have reached this level, the children no longer at thoughtlessly, but put the group first and try to benefit for its benefit. This unity born among children, which is produced by a spontaneous need, direct by a n unconscious power, and vitalized by a social spirit, is a phenomenon needing a name, and I call it cohesion in the social unit. (Mari Montessori, The Absorbent Mind, Pg 240) Dr . Montessori always believed in a honorable society not only with intellectual richness but also with a lot of harmony, peace, unity and love.In her opinion, the first step in building a healthy society is building a harmonious and lovable environment in the schools. Thus she designed her environment as a miniature of the society and the child in the environment as a microcosm of the whole society who represents the community or the world he lives in, who co-exists with the people around, owns the responsibility of protect the world he live in, who moves forward coherently and with a lot of love and respect to each other. Every man in a boat race rows his hardest for the boat, knowing the full well that this will bring him neither personal glory nor special reward. If this become the rule in every social undertaking, from these which embrace the whole country down to a smallest industrial console and if all were moved by the wish to bring honor to his group, rather than to himself, then the whole human family will be reborn.This integration of individual with his group must be cultivated in the schools (Maria Montessori, The Absorbent mind, Pg 243) Bibliography Sl. no Name of the author Name of the book exit and year 1. Montessori Maria The Child Society and the World Montessori- Pierson Publishing Company, 2008 2. Montessori Maria The Absorbent Mind Kalakshetra Publications, 1949 3. Montessori Maria The Discovery of the Child Kalakshetra Publications, 1949 4. Hainstock. G. Elizibeth The Essential Montessori An Introduction to Clio press, Oxford, England, 1989 the Woman, the Writings, the Method, and the Movement 5. Getmann David Basic Montessori learning activities for St. Martins Press, 1987 under-five Websites (http//www. montessori-namta. org/NAMTA/ PDF%20files/Outcomes. pdf, Childs Instinct to Work, Maria Montessori) http//montessoriclc. net/education/practical-life/

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