Friday, February 22, 2019
Diffusion and Osmosis of Solutes and Water Across a Membrane
Diffusion and Osmosis of Solutes and Water Across a Membrane Brittany Bacallao Nova southeastern University Abstract This sample gave a visual understanding of osmosis and diffusion. The introductory examine proved that solutes would move down a tightness gradient if pervious to the selective tissue layer. The second experiment proved unlike solute ingresss repair the front of irrigate supply, depending on the solute concentration inside the prison prison prison cell. The purpose of this lab was to look for various solutes that can cross an artificial membrane and to observe the effect of different concentrations of sucrose on the big money of a potato cell.Results for equatingt single suggested that the molecular burden of white and stiffen was besides large to retort by dint of the dialysis tube, but glucose and sodium convert molecules were delicate enough to run through through the dialysis tube. Also, a decrease in irrigate cant over occurred refe rable the dialysis tube cosmos hardened in a hypertonic reply. Results for Par Two showed the potato cell having a molar concentration of 0. 2734, which caused sucrose concentrations above 0. 2 M to have a decrease in bus. Inversely, sucrose concentrations be poor 0. 2 M caused an increase in pickle.Diffusion is the ergodic movement of molecules short-circuiting evenly into available space (Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, & Urry, 2011). Movement of wet also follows a similar image, however, wet can act as a shield for solutes and become unavailable to diffuse while in new(prenominal)(a) cases body of urine is free and go away move to an plain of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration this processes is better known as osmosis (Keith, Messing, Schmitt, & Feingold, 2010). Osmosis and diffusion can occur along a permeable membrane or selective membrane.A cell with a selective membrane allows small molecules and ions to course through but exclud es others also, substances that are able to pass through the membrane do so at different rates. On the other hand, permeable membranes allow nonpolar molecules, such as hydrophobic molecules (water fearing), to split in the lipid bilayer, which allows the molecule to easily cross the membrane. However, molecules such as glucose can pass through the lipid bilayer, but not as rapidly as nonpolar molecule (Cain et al. , 2011).Understanding the concept of osmosis helps in conformity wherefore lakes cannot have an increase in salinity. If saltiness of a lake increases, species living in the lake could die. This occurs when the lake water becomes hypertonic answer, which causes the animal cells to lose an excessive amount of water forcing the cell to shrivel up and die (Cain et al. , 2011). On the contrary, understanding the concept of diffusion can help explain why after dot perfume in one area of the room, then after several(prenominal) minutes, the perfume is smelled throughout th e room.This is because particles of the perfume move randomly and eventually sp enter out evenly throughout the room. Moreover, in the experiment performed, diffusion and osmosis was notice using artificial systems (plastic membranes) and potato cells. The secret code hypothesis for Part maven of the experiment is that the concentration gradient has no effect on the system of weights of the dialysis tube. The tack on hypothesis is that the weight of the dialysis tube will be modify by the concentration gradient.The null hypothesis for Part Two of the experiment is that the increase of sucrose concentration has no effect on the mass of the potato cell. The alternate hypothesis is that the difference in sucrose concentration will affect the mass of the potato cell. This experiment ladders all hypotheses and helps to explain the concepts of diffusion and osmosis. Materials and Methods Part One Gloves were used to obtain a 20 cm section of dialysis tube that had soaked in a beake r of distilled water prior to the experiment. The dialysis tube was cleaned with distilled water and then tied off to form a pouch.Once the pouch was formed, 3 mL of stiffen and sodium sulfate solution was displace inside the tube, and then tied off and weighed. The weight obtained was recorded as initial weight. While weighing the dialysis tube with the solution of starch and sodium sulfate, eight test tubes were obtained and solution of starch/sodium sulfate was added to twain test tubes label pocket edition start (Keith et al. , 2010). afterward weighing dialysis tube of starch/sodium sulfate and adding the solution to deuce test tubes, the tubing was placed in a beaker containing a solution of albumin and glucose.Next, 1. 0 mL of albumin and glucose were then placed in two test tubes labeled solution start. The tubing in the albumin/glucose solution was kept inside the solution for 75 minutes. Every 15 minutes the solution and tube was mixed (Keith et al. , 2010). At the end of the 75 minutes, two 1. 0 mL samples of the albumin/glucose solution from the beaker were added to two test tubes labeled solution end. Then, the dialysis tube was removed from the beaker and rinsed off with distilled water. Once the tubing was rinsed and blotted dry the last(a) water weight was recorded.After measuring the concluding water weight, the contents in the tubing was dumped into a beaker and 1. 0 mL of starch/sodium sulfate solution was added to two test tubes labeled nucleotide end (Keith et al. , 2010). In order to test for glucose, a glucose dip and read strip was placed in the first site of test tubes that were labeled bag start, solution start, bag end, and solution end. Then, a protein dip-and-read strip was placed in the same set of test tubes and the results were recorded from both glucose and protein strips.After interrogation for protein, solution and bag samples were tested for sodium sulfate. To test for sodium sulfate, trinity drops of 2% barium chloride were added to the second set of test tubes labeled bag start, solution start, bag end, and solution end. The results were observed and then recorded (Keith et al. , 2010). To play if starch was largess in the solutions, iodine solution was added to the first set of test tubes that were used for the glucose and protein strips. Results were then observed and recorded (Keith et al. , 2010). Part two Seven beakers were obtained. 0 mL of solution labeled 0. 2 M sucrose, 0. 4 M sucrose, 0. 6 M sucrose, 0. 8 M sucrose, 1 M sucrose, distilled water, and unknown were all(prenominal) placed in different beakers. Then, a potato was sliced into 28 cylinders using a cork borer. The cylinders were disordered into seven companys of four and then placed under a report card towel until the group was ready to weigh the potato cylinders. Once brisk to weigh the cylinders, the weight of each group of cylinders was recorded. Four cylinders were placed into each beaker and sat for an hour (Keith et al. , 2010).After the beakers sat for an hour at room temperature, the potato cylinders were then removed and blotted dry. Final weight was recorded for each group of potato cylinders. To calculate the percentage deviate, the following equation was used (Keith et al. , 2010) percentage change =Ending mass-Starting massStarting mass? 100% Results Part One Results for the first experiment revealed certain molecular weights were unable to pass through the selectively permeable membrane. display board 1 shows that albumin (protein) and starch were unable to pass through the selective membrane.Albumins molecular weight was approximately 64,000 Daltons and starchs molecular weight was greater than 100,000 Daltons these results were already known. initially, glucose was present exterior of the dialysis tube but in utmost results glucose was instal in the final bag and final solution. On the contrary, sodium sulfate was initially present inside the dialysis tube but in the final results moreover, sulfate ion was found in the final solution. The last result was the change in water weight. Water had decreased from the initial weight. The following results are shown in Table 1.Table 1 Diffusion of solutes through an artificial membrane after 75 minutes. Glucose sulphate ion Protein Starch Water weight (g) Inside bag sign - + - + 16. 59 g Final + - - + 16. 05 g Outside bag Initial + + +++ - Final + + +++ - Part Two In the second experiment results showed different concentrations of sucrose affected the potatoes mass. In the beakers containing 0. 0 M (distilled water) and 0. 2 M concentration of sucrose resulted in water entering the potato cell, which caused the cell to increase in mass.The beakers containing 0. 4 M, 0. 6 M, 0. 8 M, and 1 M of sucrose concentration had the opposite effect on the potatoes mass. Therefore, the higher the concentration was the greater amount of water left wing, do the cell to decrease in mass. Also, the un known concentration was found to be 0. 5 M of sucrose, which caused the mass in the potato cells to decrease as a result of water leaving the cell. The following information is displayed in Table 2. Table 2 Percent change in mass of potato cells after being placed in different sucrose concentrations, also the differences in initial and final mass.Contents in beaker Initial mass Final mass fate difference % Change in mass a. Distilled Water 0. 82 0. 92 0. 1 12. 20% b. 0. 2 M Sucrose 0. 65 0. 69 0. 04 6. 20% c. 0. 4 M Sucrose 0. 62 0. 56 -0. 06 -9. 70% d. 0. 6 M Sucrose 0. 69 0. 58 -0. 1 -15. 90% e. 0. 8 M Sucrose 0. 61 0. 48 -0. 13 -21. 30% f. 1 M Sucrose 0. 74 0. 57 -0. 17 -23% g. unusual 0. 77 0. 7 -0. 07 -9. 10% The molar concentration of the potato cell was found to be 0. 2734 M. The molecular weight was found by smell for the x-intercept on the graph below (Figure 2. . Figure 2 Percent change in mass of potato cells put in different concentrations of sucrose. discourse Part One of the experiment indicated that the dialysis tube was selectively permeable and only molecular weight fewer than 64,000 Daltons were able to pass through the membrane. This explains why albumin and starch were unable to pass through the membrane because their molecules were too large. Conversely, glucose was able to pass through the selectively permeable membrane collectable to its relatively small molecular weight.However, because glucose was present in both the final bag and final solution this meant that glucose had evenly distributed its molecules by complying with the concept of diffusion. Sulfate ions present outside the dialysis tube in the final results show that sulfate ions were also able to diffuse through the selective membrane into the final solution. A decrease in water weight from initial weight shows that the dialysis tube was placed in a hypertonic solution causing more of the inside solution to diffuse to the outside leading to a decrease in the final weight of the bag.The null hypothesis is rejected in Part One of the experiment because the concentration gradient did affect the weight of the dialysis tube. This is due to the fact that sodium sulfate completely left the bag, thus causing the bag to decrease in weight. The reason why sodium sulfate left is because there was no sodium sulfate in the solution therefore, molecules went to an area of lower concentration. The alternate hypothesis is not rejected because the concentration gradient did affect the weight of the dialysis tube.This is proven by a decrease in initial weight due to sodium sulfate leaving the tube. Part Two of the experiment showed that the potato cells had around kind of change in their mass after being placed in different sucrose concentrations. The change in mass occurred because water either left the cell or entered the cell depending on the sucrose concentration. This explains why distilled water had the greatest increase in mass, because water cherished to go to an area (potato cell) of higher concentration from an area of low concentration.On the other hand, 1 M of sucrose concentration had the greatest decrease in mass because water wanted to leave the cell to move to an area of higher concentration. Therefore, if the concentration was greater than the molar concentration of the potato cell than water left the cell at a faster rate. The null hypothesis for Part Two of the experiment proved to be unseasonable because an increase in sucrose concentration did have an affect on the change in mass of the potato cell.Increased sucrose concentration changed the mass of the cell because the concentration was higher than the molar concentration of the potato cell. Thus, the alternate hypothesis is proven correct. The difference in sucrose concentration will affect the mass of the potato cell. References Cain, M. L. , Jackson, R. B. , Minorsky, P. V. , Reece, J. B. , & Urry, L. A. (2011). Biology (9th Edition ed. ). San Francisco Pearson Educa tion, Inc. Keith, E. , Messing, C,. Schmitt, E. , Feingold, J. (2010). Laboratory Exercises in Biology (3rd ed. ). Dubuque, IA Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.