Tuesday, February 26, 2019
An Epic Tragedy of History Essay
Both autochthonic Ameri rat literary productions and inject have been inspired by the vocal usage of flitting bug out stories and cultural folk expressions, through the spoken word. The own(prenominal) journey of chronicling these stories in literature and take on is very holylyegorical in that the individualized journeys that these writers to a fault par in onlyel of latitude their struggle with a literal journey. As such, these stories become full of symbolic representation for the types of cultural artifacts that arsehole non be assimilated into mainstream culture non in the English language, not in the Christian religion, and not in the reservations that hindered spectrality.There is a makeup in completely of the texts and in the word picture that depicts the struggle of trying to visualise where the individual and the culture fit into the wider domain of a function that knows little of their humanity. Other texts decl be oneself specific insight into how conversion of aborigine Americans into Christianity was essential for those of European rootage to develop this mysterious group. It becomes apparent that the viva voce examination usage sustained these groups for centuries until the outrage of land led to the damage of more(prenominal) than freedoms, especi each(prenominal)y that of having the right to conformation ideas just about the world without the g everywheren of separates.The film and the primaeval American writers reviewed all seek to exert their power and use words and motion pictures to explain all the literary and historical meaning of the stories told to them, predating all these modes of communication. Scott Momady in his book, The centering to Rainy Mountain describes the theme of the man of the Kwuda, which was passed great deal in the oral tradition. What is interesting is that he notes that the names of the folks did change and on that point was a sense of this tribe being divided.Later still they took the name Gaigwu, a name which can be interpreted to indicate something of which two halves disaccord from each other in appearance (17). It is not only the way that this group of great deal came into existence notwithstanding besides the diversity and balance deep down this particular tribe that is extremely classic. When innate Americans were forced onto reservations, it was of the level best grandness for the rest of the world not to see all internal Americans as the same, as they were varied with the m all tribes and also within tribes.These oral stories become even more important to dictate into print or film to show how autochthonous Americans viewed the world, themselves, and most importantly to realistically deck their heritage with the hopes of changing how umteen exsanguines viewed them. The allegorical and symbolic divide that came to travel all of these authors to write stories that bridged the gap in their own respective lives, also helped to c reate a film as well.The movie Dreamkeeper, directed by Steve Barron, shows how a family divided will struggle to keep tradition subsisting despite the death or disappearance of an important figure. In this film the pressing issues between the grandfather, grandson, and absent father serves as a parable for the intrusion on the culture of the familys tribe versus the tradition of passing down lineage and heritage. The metaphor is that the grandfather is rooted in the past, the grandson is psyche into an uncertain future, and the father is the only link to the present.These cultural threats are more than just the loss of land or the loss of a father, it is the changing of times into a future that is being mapped out by some other group entirely, that being white Americans. These maps, so to speak, or the oral tradition that has mapped out the hi tommyrot of entire tribes and families has been written about by other prominent Native Americans in their journey and tragedy of trying to rent this divide between past and present all the while inquire what the future will hold.These types of worries were normally settled by spiritual means, moreover loss of land meant loss of the ability for Native Americans to go on their spiritual quests. Charles Alexander Eastman in his passage from The Soul of an Indian writes about the mystical quest under(a)taken by Native Americans in his native Sioux tribe that required several nights away from camp in meditation. He also writes of the divide of the Native American, a common theme in all the reviewed whole kit and caboodle. The red man is divided into two parts,-the spiritual mind and the sensual mind.The first is pure spirit, relate only with the centre of attention of things, and it was this he want to strengthen by spiritual prayer (767). Because of this loss of land, essentially the loss of spirit or at least the ways in which spiritual rituals were conducted came to an end. Also, the fear of the future was r e straddled by Christian ideals to help Americans of European dec understand how these natives fir into their rule book. In this way the Native Americans, already interested with loss of identity were split even pull ahead in a divide that led them to an uncertain and uncharacteristic future.It was only through the oral tradition of preserving identity that Native Americans could attempt to achieve a ad hominem wholeness while the many tribes and family members within tribes became scattered and disillusioned. It is through the personal journeys of the writers that it becomes apparent how the loss of land impacted not only an entire civilization, entirely individuals, who incapacitated identity and did whatever was necessary to try to discover, rediscover, and refrain all that was left. Gertrude Bonnin, in passages from Impressions of an Indian Childhood talks about awake(p) what could be considered a double life.Gertrude sometimes refers to herself as her Sioux name, Zitka la-Sa, which means scarlet Bird. She was born on a reservation to a Sioux start out and her white father was absent in her life. She struggled between the old ways that her mother tried to teach her in the oral tradition and the ways that people conducted themselves outside of the reservation. She became torn and decided that the reservation life was not for her and the American way of treating Native Americans was not appealing either.So she began compiling all the information she could gather from what was relayed to her by her mother in the oral tradition and then wrote these stories in English. She abhorred the fact that the language of her ancestors had disappeared and she was just as concerned as Eastman was about the loss of spirituality for all Native Americans under the conversion to Christianity. Bonnin writes, I prefer to their dogma my excursions into the natural gardens where the voice of the considerable Spirit is heard in the twittering of birds, the rippling of m ighty waters, and the sweet breathing of flowers (939-940).It becomes clear that for the spirituality of Native Americans to thrive, then land uninterrupted by industrialization was conveyed in order for this group to be who they had incessantly been before they were removed to reservations. So taking their land was not a simple geographic issue, this also took these peoples essence and spirituality from them. It is and so important for these texts and films to exist as reminder of what was lost, not just space, but a place in story for people who had to rely on a few to pass on as many of the stories given to them in the oral tradition and put it in print or in film.All three written pieces reviewed and the film help to show the importance of the land that was taken from the Native Americans, as well as the influence of the oral tradition of passing down stories and spiritual pathways to each turn up generation. The film and the written works display twain a metaphorical di vide in the ways of the respective authors and tribes and the bigger corporation, showing that differences take away to be acknowledged as well as the common design of this group to gather their cultural artifacts that would have disappeared into an assimilated America.Also, the allegorical journey that all these contributors took to discover their part in history is akin to an epic and a tragedy. Scholars, as well, have looked at the impact of the spiritual strivings of Native Americans and the last need for tribes to achieve a new identity in a foreign land to them, a land that was once their own. It was the need for Christian legitimacy on the part of European settlers that led to a need for Native Americans to be stripped of their spiritual roots and forced to cede to religious conversion.The mission of these Christians absorbed Native Americans into a Christian world view that made them comprehensible to Euro-Americans, who were otherwise faced with a community whose myst erious origins threatened to call into question the explanatory value of the Bible (Wyss, 162). So as Euro-Americans sought to explain the discrepancies with Native Americans and their absence from the Bible, Native Americans had to wrestle with their own identities that were being challenged by these settlers for purposes other than just the acquisition of land.What then became an issue was the questioning of creation on the part of settlers and the lost tribe theory (162) that proposed that Native Americans were part of a tribe that was not thoroughly explained in the Bible. All the while many Native Americans take a firm stand their own creation allegorys while other Natives tried to assert transcendence over whites with the reasoning that if Natives were a part of Israels lost tribes then, therefore, they were enveloping(prenominal) descendants of Jacob.This hierarchy of Biblical place did play an important share on the identity of Natives during their assimilation into Eu ro-American culture, though the oral tradition sure enough did support a different idea for the origins of each tribe. Even those Native Americans that did subscribe to a Christian ideal were defined by a constant deferral of home, or the constant movement, both geographical and cultural, of a disordered people (165).It seems then that the roots of all Native Americans, who were fragmented and spread across the nation, was entrenched in the oral tradition of creation stories and spirituality. However, the many Native American stories that were told and passed down led to they idea the Euro-Americans had as Natives being savage and mythical, making their stories, even true encounters appear to be false.This led to the Natives invisibility in the annals of encounter constructed as tellers of myth and as peoples of myth, they are denied a place in the national story and a voice in recounting it (Bellin, 99). This created the powerlessness found in Natives attempting to assert their p lace in the new America that was founded on laws, both the divine and those conceived by Europeans. The fact that Natives had stories, spirituality, and kinship was not enough to place them in a position of asserting their power in any way that seemed rational to Euro-Americans.As well the illiteracy of Native Americans sure enough did not assist this group in gaining any type of comprehension for having much to offer the Europeans in their stories. the oral nature of much Indian narrative has been taken to explain both the Indians irrelevance to history-for what could illiterates offer? -and their inability to remember and record it (102). As well, Native Americans stories were not just told, they were animated through acting, making the stories more meaningful to the Native audience but meaningless to a person outside of a tribe.It is fair to recite that the identity of Native Americans was not only in their oral tradition, but in the ways in which stories were acted out. This is something that is lost even if a story is recounted by a Native to as close to the original contentedness as possible. Much is also lost in translation further undermining any attempts that Natives could make when forced on reservations, where their land and language was taken along with the ties of spirituality that sustained them.It also makes the spiritual identity of Native Americans more complicated when they are not only placed in an Anthropological category of uncivilized, the literary category of completely mythical, and finally over romanticized by scholars, who do not understand the deep meaning roll in the hay Native American spirituality and ritual. These rites and rituals are meant to cement a community of people together and individual identity can be created within these rituals.Instead, many times, these acts and stories are perceived as more universal and therefore there is the mistaken implication that Native American spirituality can be lumped into a religio n that can be used by all. This has placed and continues to place the sense of community outside of the purposes intended and unhappily many people use information gleaned from Native spirituality for proceeds or for writing scholarly articles that do not take into number the private lives of a single Native, but instead combine individuals into a whole.With a fragmented sense of history and culture, it is right to note that there has been and continues to be fragmentation in the Native American communities, but for an individual, a sense of self requires both community identity and a manifold set of cultural artifacts to make that individual whole and not a watered down, assimilated version of the Euro-Americans. To be more clear, the text versions of Native Americans stories involving spirituality and rituals many times do not take into account the personal nature of these events.It is not only a matter of entire communities of Native American feeling the need to forge and rec laim their converted or dismissed identities as a whole, but the essence of the individual in a tribe, separate from others that must do the same. Nicknames, shadows, and shamanic sic visions are tribal stories that are heard and remembered as survivance sic. These personal identities and stories are not the same as those translated in the literature (Grim, 44).This lack of voice to individual Native Americans and stereotyping of all communities and persons being inherently the same in their spirituality and other societal activities makes more important the voices, such as the Native authors and filmmakers reviewed all the more important. These artists have shown how gender, tribe, place, and, politics, to name just a few social forces can affect an individual struggling for acceptance within him or herself and in the larger world.All these factors must be considered when looking at film and literature, separating the individual from the group while at the same time comprehend th e struggle for those individuals as being the best representation available for a group without a strong voice. In conclusion, the film and the literary works of Native Americans highlight the voice of a specific individual, attempting to speak for their community. taken with scholarly research, it can be seen the effect of colonialism and religious conversion on the vulnerable Native American population.Their history has many gaps in that the myths and traditions were many times dismissed and the absence from the Christian Bible made their existence confusing and unsettling to the settlers. The voices that have been stifled serve to help save the history of the mainstream at their expense, and this powerlessness and absence from history can only be reconstructed in the best way possible. Though even stories passed down in the oral tradition are lacking in the gestures and actions of the storytellers, which is the essence of oral storytelling.Works Cited Joshua David Bellin, The De mon of the Continent Indians and the Shaping of American Literature, Philadelphia University of pop Press, 2001. Gertrude Bonnin, Impressions of an Indian Childhood in The Heath Anthology of American Literature Vol. 2. Ed. capital of Minnesota Lauter, Lexington D. C. Heath and Company, 1994. Dreamkeeper, Dir by Steve Barron, Hallmark Entertainment Productions, 2003. Charles Alexander Eastman, The Soul of an Indian in The Heath Anthology of American Literature Vol. 2. Ed.Paul Lauter, Lexington D. C. Heath and Company, 1994. tush A. Grim, Cultural Identity, Authenticity, and Community Survival The Politics of Recognition in Native American Religions in Lee Irwin Native American Spirituality A Critical Reader, Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Scott N. Momaday, The Way to Rainy Mountain, Albuquerque University of New Mexico, 1969. Hilary E. Wyss, composition Indians Literacy, Christianity, and Native Community in Early America, Boston University of Massachusetts Press, 200 0.